Thursday, 19 March 2015

2. Development of Animation

Joseph Plateau, 1832
In 1832, Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau and him and his sons introduced the phenakistoscope to the world also known as the "spindle viewer".  It was invented independently in the same year by Simon von Stampfer of Vienna, Austria, who called his invention a stroboscope.  Plateau's inspiration had come primarily from the work of Michael Faraday and Peter Mark Roget (the compiler of Roget's Thesaurus).  Faraday had invented a device he called "Michael Faraday's Wheel," that consisted of two discs that spun in opposite directions from each other.  From this, Plateau took another step, adapting Faraday's wheel into a toy he later named the phenakistoscope.

William Horner

William Horner was  also another animation pioneer, he's spends years and created the zoetrope. He created the zoetrope in 1834.A zoetrope is a device that produces an illusion of action from a rapid succession. It was designed to be a better version off the phenkitascope. it lead to the praxinoscope being made and also lead to animation being viewed simpler. this made animation easier to be seen because it had small slits on the side where the person could look inside and it would give a better effect than a phenkitascope.  the designs on the zoetrope vary from animals to football players, and is still used today.

Charles-Émile Reynaud
Charles-Émile Reynaud  was a French inventor, responsible for the first creations of the animated in cartoons. Reynaud created the Praxinoscope in 1877 and the theatre Optique in December 1888, and on 28 October 1892 he projected the first animated film in public, Pauvre Pierrot, at the Mussee Grevin in Paris. This is also notable as the first known instance of film Preforations being used.

homas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph , the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park", he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention, and because of that, he is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research labortoray 

George Pal
 George Pal (born György Pál Marczincsak; February 1, 1908 – May 2, 1980) was a Hungarian-born  and film producer, principally associated with the  genre. He became an American citizen after emigrating from Europe. He was nominated for (in the category Best short subjects, Cartoon) no less than seven consecutive years (1942–1948) and received an honorary award in 1944. This makes him the second most nominated Hungarian exile (together with William S. Darling andErnest Laszlo) after Miklós Rózsa.


Willis Harold O'Brien (March 2, 1886 – November 8, 1962) was an American motion animation special  and  pioneer, who according to "was responsible for some of the best-known images in cinema history," and is best remembered for his work on  (1925), (1933) and  (1949), for which he won the 1950 Academy Award for Best Visual Effects.Willis O'Brien was born in . He first left home at the age of eleven to work on cattle ranches, and again at the age of thirteen when he took on a variety of jobs including farmhand, factory worker, fur trapper, cowboy, and bartender. During this time he also competed in rodeos and developed an interest in dinosaurs while working as a guide to palaeontologists in Crater Lake region.

Raymond Frederick Harryhausen was born on the 29th June 1920 in Los Angeles, California, USA, to parents Fred and Martha.
He had a passion, which has never abated, for dinosaurs and anything fantasy.
His parents both encouraged him to pursue what he wanted to, even if the chosen career wasn’t what they would have probably considered usual.  Ray commented, ‘My obsession with fantasy has been lifelong, growing during my formative years and being taken to new heights by novels, paintings and of course films, and I was always encouraged by my parents.  They nurtured this unusual passion in me by taking me to films and theatre, and later enthused about my experiments with marionettes, models and animation, eventually even helping me with productions.  They never tried to discourage me in any way from my obsession, and could just as easily have said, ‘Get out there and be a doctor or a lawyer or follow some other profession that is going to bring you in money’.  Fortunately, they didn’t’.


Jan Švankmajer (Czech:born 4 September 1934) is a Czech filmmaker and artist whose work spans several media. He is a self-labeled surrealist known for his animations and features, which have greatly influenced other artists such as Terry Gilliam, the Brothers Quay, and many others.

Jan Svankmajer Crystal Globe.jpg

Stephen and Timothy Quay  are American identical twin brothers better known as the Brothers Quay or Quay Brothers. They are influential  They are also the recipients of the 1998 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Set Design for their work on the play The Chairs.
Hermanos Quay.jpg

Timothy Walter "Tim" Burton[ is an American film director, producer, artist, writer, poet and stop motion  artist. He is known for his dark, gothic, macabre and quirky horror and fantasy films
Tim Burton by Gage Skidmore.jpg

1 comment:

  1. pass for merit, explain the techniques of stop motion animation with reference